3.2.2 Accessible media and formats

Students with vision impairments or print disabilities80 (i.e. cannot perceive written text) may require information to be made accessible in a variety of formats and ways:

  • Braille - A tactile system using patterns of raised dots representing letters and numbers. Braille is produced using a special printer, called an embosser, but can also be produced using accessible PDAs (above) or by attaching refreshable Braille output devices to a standard computer.81
  • Large print – Printed text in which font sizes are typically increased to 16 points or larger, benefiting persons with mild vision impairment
  • Electronic formats including:

o Word-processed documents - Such as those produced by MS Word and OpenOffice Writer

o Talking books – Either narrated by a human or converted automatically into synthesized speech (a Digital Talking Book). Free online service and downloadable services are available to convert text files into synthesized speech audio files in formats such as MP3.

o Accessible HTML82 or PDF83

o DAISY (Digital Accessible Information System) Digital Talking Book (DTB) – a DAISY DTB can include audio (human or synthesized) speech, which can be navigated, and a synchronized text version of the book. Depending on its configuration, a DAISY DTD can be listened to on a computer or standalone audio player, rendered using a refreshable Braille display, read on screen or listened to with synchronized text displayed on screen.

o ePub – an open standard for eBooks used on some popular eBook players.

80Print disabled: A person who cannot effectively read print because of a visual, physical, perceptual, developmental, cognitive, or learning disability. http://www.daisy.org/glossary/12#term325