2.1.1.3 Mexico, Central America and South America

According to conservative estimates, 30 million Indigenous peoples live in this region. Due to the subjugation and exploitation produced during the conquest by Spain and Portugal, the peoples of this region have been characterized throughout their history by problems of social inequality, migration, conflict over land and water, and the dispossession and gradual loss of control over their lands. Human rights attacks, murders and political imprisonment are a reflection of the violence experienced by these peoples, from Mexico to Chile and Argentina. However, in areas such as Bolivia, Ecuador and Venezuela, there are signs of progress with respect to state recognition of Indigenous rights, as witnessed in the election of Bolivian President Evo Morales, the first South American chief executive considered to be an heir of the original peoples of the continent.